School-Based Efforts (SBEs) Towards Promotion of Health Literacy (HL) and Health-Related Knowledge (HRK) in Selected Primary Schools in Morogoro, Tanzania

  • David Mshingo
  • Mikidadi Muhanga
Keywords: School-based efforts; Promotion of Health Literacy; Health Related Knowledge; Primary schools; Tanzania.


Numerous efforts have been made by the government in Tanzania to improve health literacy (HL). Despite the efforts, there are notable incidents of low and problematic HL among the general population. Socialization agents, schools inclusive, have been observed to have significant influence on health promotion. It is not empirically known to what extent schools as socialization agents have been involved in these initiatives. The schools can initiate school-based efforts (SBEs) to promote HL and health related knowledge to nurture health consciousness hence healthier lives. This study was conducted to identify school-based efforts (SBEs) towards promotion of health literacy (HL) and health-related knowledge (HRK) in selected primary schools. A cross-sectional research design was adopted to collect data from 939 respondents. Data were collected using a questionnaire survey, focus group discussions, and key informant interview. Data was analysed using IBM - SPSS (v20).  Findings from teachers, 50.3% (95% CI: 82 to 108) showed that environments and pupils inspections were among the SBEs to promote HL in schools. Whereas, health education provision 25.9% (95% CI: 38 to 61), presence of learning materials in schools 23.8% (95% CI: 34 to 57). Findings from pupils 59.6% (95% CI: 399 to 497) and 24.9% (95% CI: 165 to 211) revealed that time available for health education, and learning materials on health issues were insufficient in schools, while 15.5% (95% CI: 98 to 136) of the respondents were ignorant about the efforts being made to improve HL. About 23.7% (95% CI: 35 to 54) of the respondents confirmed efforts made by health workers on health issues in schools towards HL promotion.  Most teachers 76.6% (95% CI: 118 to 176) complained about health workers failures to update teachers on health issues. Generally, this study concludes that there are several efforts which have been made to promote HL in schools. However, these efforts have not yet fully succeeded to bring much positive effects since HRK is still low in schools.  It is recommended that, to fully succeed in promoting HL and HRK, governments and other partners should support the schools’ efforts undertaken to support HL in schools.

How to Cite
MshingoD., & MuhangaM. (2022). School-Based Efforts (SBEs) Towards Promotion of Health Literacy (HL) and Health-Related Knowledge (HRK) in Selected Primary Schools in Morogoro, Tanzania. THE SUB SAHARAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES (SSJSSH), 1(2), 20-30. Retrieved from